henri ii angleterre

111–122, 130; Weiler, pp. [39][nb 6] The marriage instantly reignited Henry's tensions with Louis: it was considered an insult, it ran counter to feudal practice[clarification needed] and it threatened the inheritance of Louis and Eleanor's two daughters, Marie and Alix, who might otherwise have had claims to Aquitaine on Eleanor's death. Warren (2000), pp. Several grievances underpinned the revolt. William's campaign began to falter as the Scots failed to take the key northern royal castles, in part due to the efforts of Henry's illegitimate son, Geoffrey. [327] Henry finally got his own way in early 1185 by bringing Eleanor to Normandy to instruct Richard to obey his father, while simultaneously threatening to give Normandy, and possibly England, to Geoffrey. Henry forced Richard to give homage, but Young Henry angrily refused to accept it. [62] Upon news of this, Stephen returned with a large army, and the two sides confronted each other across the River Thames at Wallingford in July. Refer to each style’s convention regarding the best way to format page numbers and retrieval dates. King (2010), p. 185; Warren (2000), p. 38. Ireland had only recently been conquered by Anglo-Norman forces, and tensions were still rife between Henry's representatives, the new settlers and the existing inhabitants. 219, 306; Warren (2000), p. 119. [216] Revenue from the demesne formed the bulk of Henry's income in England, although taxes were used heavily in the first 11 years of his reign. Some class Henry II to be the first Plantagenet King of England; others refer to Henry, Richard and John as the Angevin dynasty, and consider Henry III to be the first Plantagenet ruler. [30] The treaty appeared shaky, and tensions remained—in particular, Henry had not given homage to Louis for his French possessions. His legal changes are generally considered to have laid the basis for English Common Law, the Exchequer court being a forerunner of the later Common Bench at Westminster. Three years later the new Count of Flanders, Philip, concerned about Henry's growing power, openly allied himself with the French King. His reign saw the rise of English nationalism and the development of a strong baronial c…, Henry II (Holy Roman emperor and German king), Henry Ford Community College: Tabular Data, Henry Ford Community College: Narrative Description, Henry Ford Community College: Distance Learning Programs, Henry E. Huntington Library and Art Gallery, Henry Morton Stanley Circumnavigates Africa's Lake Victoria and Explores the Entire Length of the Congo River, https://www.encyclopedia.com/religion/encyclopedias-almanacs-transcripts-and-maps/henry-ii-king-england. [149][nb 18] Within the court were his officials, ministeriales, his friends, amici, and the familiares regis, the King's informal inner circle of confidants and trusted servants. Français : Aliénor (ou Eleanor) d'Aquitaine, reine consort de Henry II Plantagenêt, roi d'Angleterre. 35–36, 38; Carpenter, p. 197. [53] A delegation of senior English clergy met with Henry and his advisers at Stockbridge, Hampshire, shortly before Easter in April. [208] Medieval rulers such as Henry enjoyed various sources of income during the 12th century. [261] Louis seized on the case, and, despite efforts by the Norman church to prevent the French church from taking action, a new interdict was announced on Henry's possessions. This required the acquiescence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, traditionally the churchman with the right to conduct the ceremony. Furthermore, the whole Becket matter was an increasing international embarrassment to Henry. 279–280; Bradbury, pp. Wikipedia Citation. 304–205; Hallam and Everard, pp. [3] In theory, the county answered to the French king, but royal power over Anjou weakened during the 11th century and the county became largely autonomous. Please see Wikipedia's template documentation for further citation fields that may be required. [Monnaie] Angleterre, Henry II, Esterlin, 1154-1189 [monnaie] Aquitaine, Duché d'Aquitaine, Henri II, denier, 1154-1189: Pedes finium de regnis Henrici II et Ricardi I: Recueil des actes de Henri II, roi d'Angleterre et duc de Normandie : concernant les provinces françaises et les affaires de France. 1–2; Carpenter, p. 192. [365] Late-Victorian historians, with increasing access to the documentary records from the period, stressed Henry's contribution to the evolution of key English institutions, including the development of the law and the exchequer. During the Victorian expansion of the British Empire, historians were keenly interested in the formation of Henry's own empire, but they also expressed concern over his private life and treatment of Becket. Earlier historians, such as Jacques Boussard, argued in favour of an "administrative coherence" featuring across the empire; this view is opposed by most current historians. Although seals only survive from about 1189, it is not improbable that John, knighted by his father in 1185 (Roger de Hovenden, Chronicles, (Rolls Series) Vol. 1038), "Criticism of Henry II's Expedition to Ireland in William of Canterbury's Miracles of St Thomas Becket", Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, "Kings and Sons: Princely Rebellions and the Structures of Revolt in Western Europe, c.1170-c.1280", Margaret of France, Queen of England and Hungary, Joan, Countess of Hertford and Gloucester, Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_II_of_England&oldid=997040617, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 19:02. Earlier historical opinion emphasised the loyalty of the Duchy of Normandy during the Great Revolt; more recent scholarship has altered this perspective and highlighted the prevailing tensions. New Catholic Encyclopedia. Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. Oxford 1955) for sources and older bibliography. [310] The papacy intervened and, probably as Henry had planned, the two kings were encouraged to sign a non-aggression treaty in September 1177, under which they promised to undertake a joint crusade. [239] This would require the consent of Louis, and accordingly the kings held fresh peace talks in 1169 at Montmirail. Heimdal. William II , Roi d'Angleterre was born in 1056, at birth place, to Guillaume de Normandie Roi d'Angleterre and Mathide de Normandie Roi d'Angleterre (born de Flandre). [129] In his absence the lands were ruled by seneschals and justiciars, and beneath them local officials in each of the regions carried on with the business of government. 178–179; King (2007), p. 24; Warren (2000), p. 49. [112], In the aftermath of the Toulouse episode, Louis made an attempt to repair relations with Henry through an 1160 peace treaty: this promised Henry the lands and the rights of his grandfather, Henry I; it reaffirmed the betrothal of Young Henry and Margaret and the Vexin deal; and it involved Young Henry giving homage to Louis, a way of reinforcing the young boy's position as heir and Louis's position as king. [206] Henry's movements may also have been planned to take advantage of saints' days and other fortuitous occasions. Documents about Henri II (roi d'Angleterre, 1133-1189) (26 resources in data.bnf.fr) Books (26) Instruction for a Ruler (2018) Henry the Young King, 1155-1183 (2016) [65] Fighting continued after Wallingford, but in a rather half-hearted fashion, while the English Church attempted to broker a permanent peace between the two sides. He began to take a more conciliatory tone with Becket but, when this failed, had Young Henry crowned anyway by the Archbishop of York. [76] Numerous "adulterine", or unauthorised, castles had been built as bases for local lords. [357] Many of the changes he introduced during his long rule had major long-term consequences. [291] Meanwhile, the fighting in England proved evenly balanced until a royal army defeated a superior force of rebel and Flemish reinforcements in September in the battle of Fornham near Fornham All Saints in East Anglia. See Matiland and Milsom in Biancalana on this. Encyclopedia.com. Henry II, King of England, 1133-1189 Title ; Close. [46][nb 7], Fighting immediately broke out again along the Normandy borders, where Henry of Champagne and Robert captured the town of Neufmarché-sur-Epte. By Henry II of England (married 18 May 1152, widowed 6 July 1189) William, Count of Poitiers 17 August 1153 April 1156 never married; no issue; Henry the Young King 28 February 1155 11 June 1183 married Marguerite of France; no issue; Matilda, Duchess of Saxony June 1156 13 July 1189 married Henry the Lion, Duke of Saxony; had issue ; Richard I of England 8 September 1157 6 April … Henry and Eleanor had eight children—three daughters and five sons. 21 Dec. 2020 . [70] Rumours of a plot to kill Henry were circulating and, possibly as a consequence, Henry decided to return to Normandy for a period. [198], By contrast with the tensions in England, in Normandy Henry had occasional disagreements with the Church but generally enjoyed very good relations with the Norman bishops. [332] Richard was keen to start his crusade, but was forced to wait for Henry to make his arrangements. [40] Louis had the marriage annulled and Henry married Eleanor eight weeks later on 18 May. [15] Neither his mother nor his uncle were prepared to support him, implying that they had not approved of the expedition in the first place. [349], Henry was caught by surprise at Le Mans but made a forced march north to Alençon, from where he could escape into the safety of Normandy. [339] During the negotiations, Philip suggested to Richard that they should ally against Henry, marking the start of a new strategy to divide the father and son. page 44 note 2 For the question of murderers of clerks in the canon law during this period and the previous decades, see Foreville, Raymonde, L'Église et la Royauté en Angleterre sous Henri II, Paris 1943, 426 –7. r. foreville, L'Église et la royauté en Angleterre sous Henri II (Paris 1943). Recueil des actes de Henri II, roi d'Angleterre et duc de Normandie, concernant les provinces françaises et les affaires de France; by Great Britain; Normandy (France). 248–294. Henry was born in England in 1068, in either the summer or the last weeks of the year, possibly in the town of Selby in Yorkshire. [262] Henry was focused on dealing with Ireland and took no action to arrest Becket's killers, arguing that he was unable to do so. Earlier historians believed that Henry was a particularly active literary patron; the historian John Gillingham has more recently challenged some of these interpretations of Henry and the arts in favour of Henry being a more modest patron. [335] With the death of Geoffrey, the relationship between Henry and Philip broke down. 278–279; Crouch (2002), p. 276. [39] Eleanor was the Duchess of Aquitaine, a land in the south of France, and was considered beautiful, lively and controversial, but had not borne Louis any sons. [24] He was also infamous for his piercing stare, bullying, bursts of temper and, on occasion, his sullen refusal to speak at all. [72], On landing in England on 8 December 1154, Henry quickly took oaths of loyalty from some of the barons and was then crowned alongside Eleanor at Westminster Abbey on 19 December. King (2010), p. 243; Barlow (1999), p. 180. Everard and Hallam, p. 166; Warren (2000), p. 611. 33 Sigebert of Gembloux, Chronicon, ed. [187] After 1166, Henry's exchequer court in Westminster, which had previously only heard cases connected with royal revenues, began to take wider civil cases on behalf of the King. 217–219. [285] In Normandy some of the border barons rose up and, although the majority of the duchy remained openly loyal, there appears to have been a wider undercurrent of discontent. [30] He may well have been influenced by his mother in this regard, as Matilda also had a strong sense of ancestral rights and privileges. His system was based on the circuit judge, the legal writ, and the jury. Recueil des actes de Henri II: Roi D’Angleterre et Duc de Normandie, 1182. [110] Henry invaded Toulouse, only to find Louis visiting Raymond in the city. [247] His plan did not have the desired result, as Becket promptly changed his lifestyle, abandoned his links to the King and portrayed himself as a staunch protector of church rights. [175] Indeed, in most cases he was probably not personally responsible for creating the new processes, but he was greatly interested in the law, seeing the delivery of justice as one of the key tasks for a king and carefully appointing good administrators to conduct the reforms. Henri II (roi d'Angleterre, 1133-1189) : œuvres (105 ressources dans data.bnf.fr) Œuvres numismatiques (70) monnaie (1154) Monnaie (1154) He increased his income by taking money instead of feudal military service. [259] The Archbishop refused to be arrested inside the sanctuary of a church, so the knights hacked him to death on 29 December 1170. This controversy lasted for much of the 1160s and resulted in Becket's murder in 1170. Hallam and Everard, pp. [248], Henry and Becket quickly disagreed over several issues, including Becket's attempts to regain control of lands belonging to the archbishopric and his views on Henry's taxation policies. [170] Historians such as Matthew Strickland have argued that Henry made sensible attempts to manage the tensions within his family, and that had he died younger, the succession might have proven much smoother. [350] Suddenly, Henry turned back south towards Anjou, against the advice of his officials. [120], Military tensions between the two leaders immediately increased. [98] The marriage deal would have involved Louis granting the disputed territory of the Vexin to Margaret on her marriage to the Young Henry: while this would ultimately give Henry the lands that he claimed, it also cunningly implied that the Vexin was Louis's to give away in the first place, in itself a political concession. Current academic opinion broadly maintains that Henry was right to assert that the Constitutions represented the existing customs in England, but that Becket was also correct to argue that these customs were not in accordance with. [358] Henry's itinerant justices also influenced his contemporaries' legal reforms: Philip Augustus' creation of itinerant bailli, for example, clearly drew on the Henrician model. [368], Twentieth-century historians challenged many of these conclusions. He is a central character in James Goldman's 1966 play The Lion in Winter, set in 1183 and presenting an imaginary encounter between Henry's immediate family and Philip Augustus over Christmas at Chinon. [192] In making these reforms Henry both challenged the traditional rights of barons in dispensing justice and reinforced key feudal principles, but over time they greatly increased royal power in England. [82] Various measures were immediately carried out although, since Henry spent six and a half years out of the first eight years of his reign in France, much work had to be done at a distance. [179] This process was far from perfect and in many cases claimants were unable to pursue their cases effectively. [147], Henry's wealth allowed him to maintain what was probably the largest curia regis, or royal court, in Europe. [218][nb 25] These measures were successful in improving his income, but on his return to England in the 1160s Henry took further steps. (December 21, 2020). [362] Henry's role in the Becket controversy was considered relatively praiseworthy by Protestant historians of the period, while his disputes with the French King, Louis, also attracted positive patriotic comment. [372] Significant gaps in historical analysis of Henry remain, especially the nature of his rule in Anjou and the south of France.[373]. [157] He opposed the holding of tournaments, probably because of the security risk that such gatherings of armed knights posed in peacetime. Translate texts with the world's best machine translation technology, developed by the creators of Linguee. [285] Despite the size and scope of the crisis, Henry had several advantages, including his control of many powerful royal castles in strategic areas, control of most of the English ports throughout the war, and his continuing popularity within the towns across his empire. [320], By 1182 Young Henry reiterated his previous demands: he wanted to be granted lands, for example the Duchy of Normandy, which would allow him to support himself and his household with dignity. [196] This trend had already caused tensions in England, for example when King Stephen forced Theobald of Bec, the Archbishop of Canterbury, into exile in 1152. [27][nb 4] In his youth Henry enjoyed warfare, hunting and other adventurous pursuits; as the years went by he put increasing energy into judicial and administrative affairs and became more cautious, but throughout his life he was energetic and frequently impulsive. [108], Henry hoped to take a similar approach to regaining control of Toulouse in southern France. [57] In the face of the increasingly wintry weather, the two men agreed to a temporary truce, leaving Henry to travel north through the Midlands, where the powerful Robert de Beaumont, Earl of Leicester, announced his support for the cause. [130] Nonetheless, many of the functions of government centred on Henry himself and he was often surrounded by petitioners requesting decisions or favours. Hallam and Everard, pp. [51] Louis fell ill and withdrew from the campaign, and Geoffrey was forced to come to terms with Henry. [12] The canons of St Augustine's in Bristol also helped in Henry's education, and he remembered them with affection in later years. 124–125. [215], On taking power Henry gave a high priority to the restoration of royal finances in England, reviving Henry I's financial processes and attempting to improve the quality of the royal accounting. [148] His court attracted huge attention from contemporary chroniclers, and typically comprised several major nobles and bishops, along with knights, domestic servants, prostitutes, clerks, horses and hunting dogs. [166] Henry was expected to provide for the future of his legitimate children, either through granting lands to his sons or marrying his daughters well. In addition to the MLA, Chicago, and APA styles, your school, university, publication, or institution may have its own requirements for citations. [11] Although having children educated in relatives' households was common among noblemen of the period, sending Henry to England also had political benefits, as Geoffrey was coming under criticism for refusing to join the war in England. 121–122. [351] Henry evaded the enemy forces on his way south and collapsed in his castle at Chinon. [337] Philip threatened to invade Normandy if this did not happen. 189–190; Barlow (1999), pp. [66], In November the two leaders ratified the terms of a permanent peace. Bates (1994), p. 32; Bates (2003), p. 87. [15] Taking his immediate household and a few mercenaries, he left Normandy and landed in England, striking into Wiltshire. [168] Various suggestions have been put forward to explain Henry's family's bitter disputes, from their inherited family genetics to the failure of Henry and Eleanor's parenting. [242], If the agreements at Montmirail had been followed up, the acts of homage could potentially have confirmed Louis's position as king, while undermining the legitimacy of any rebellious barons within Henry's territories and the potential for an alliance between them and Louis. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, was King of England from 1154 to his death. This was not enough to placate Young Henry. [340], Philip's offer coincided with a crisis in the Levant. [143] In Normandy, the links between the two halves of the Anglo-Norman nobility had weakened during the first half of the 12th century, and continued to do so under Henry. In trying to increase the jurisdiction of his courts, Henry clashed with his former friend and chancellor, Thomas becket. Warren (2000), p. 119; Turner (2011), p. 142; Carpenter, p. 223. Therefore, that information is unavailable for most Encyclopedia.com content. [204] After the death of Becket, he built and endowed various monasteries in France, primarily to improve his popular image.

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